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Patella lateralisatio

Lateralizált patella, térdfájdalmak - FASCIA blo

Lateral (Outside) Knee Pain: Causes & Treatment - Your

  1. Die Patellaluxation bezeichnet das Herausrutschen der Kniescheibe aus dem femoralen Gleitlager (meist nach lateral). Als größtes Sesambein des Menschen ist die Patella nicht nur an der Kraftübertragung des M. quadriceps femoris auf den Unterschenkel beteiligt, sondern bildet auch einen Teil unseres Kniegelenks.In alltäglichen Bewegungsabläufen ist sie somit einer ständigen, großen.
  2. Patella alta, or a high riding patella, describes a situation where the position of the patella is considered high.It may be idiopathic or may result secondary to a patellar tendon rupture.. Epidemiology Associations. Several conditions are known to be associated with patella alta, including
  3. A lateral meniscus tear is an injury to the cartilage meniscus. These are semi circular discs found in the joint. A torn meniscus can be a sudden onset, acute knee injury, or it can develop gradually from wear and tear
  4. Patellar Apprehension Test | Patella Dislocation The Patellar Apprehension Test assesses for lateral patella dislocation which may have congenital or traumatic causes. The Lateral Pivot.
  5. The patellofemoral joint is a unique and complex structure consisting of static elements (bones and ligaments) and dynamic elements (neuromuscular system). The patella has a configuration of a triangle with its apex directed inferiorly. Superiorly, it articulates with the trochlea, the distal articulating surface of the femur, which are the main articulating surfaces of the patellofemoral joint
  6. Introduction. The patella, with or without resurfacing, plays a fundamental role in the success of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Complications such as anterior knee pain, maltracking, subluxation or dislocation of the patella, abnormal wear and ultimately loosening of a polyethylene patellar component (if implanted), and fracture of the patella are usually due to problems related to the.
  7. Patellaluxation ist eine Kniegelenksverletzung, bei der die Kniescheibe aus ihrer Führung springt ().Meist bewegt sich die Kniescheibe spontan in ihre Ursprungsstellung zurück ().Selten verbleibt sie in ihrer Verrenkungsstellung außen (lateral) am Kniegelenk.Die Patellaluxation ist mit einer Inzidenz von 5,8/100.000 bei der Normalbevölkerung eine der häufigsten Kniegelenkverletzungen

Patella Dislocation - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshel

Patellar implant removal is a simple procedure than is indicated to treat loosening in patients with a thin patella and/or infection. However, Barrack et al. reported poor outcomes (pain, extension lag, lateral subluxation, and patellar fragmentation) A Patella mindenben partne Patella alta represents a congenital abnormality of an increased vertical position of the patella attributable to an elongated patellar tendon, resulting in the patella not engaging within the trochlea until the midflexion range of motion. Patients typically present with significant complaints related to lateral patellar subluxation or.

Patellar malalignment - Physiopedi

First-time patellar dislocation typically occurs with twisting knee motions, during which the medial ligamentous stabilizers rupture, and the patella strikes against the lateral femoral condyle. The typical injury pattern is a tear of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and bone bruises of the patella and the lateral femoral condyle Prevention. The patella is a floating sesamoid bone held in place by the quadriceps muscle tendon and patellar tendon ligament. Exercises should strengthen quadriceps muscles such as rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis.However, tight and strong lateral quadriceps can be an underlying cause of patellar dislocation. If this is the case, it is advisable to strengthen the. Ha a patella enyhén laterializált akkor mennyi a gyógyulási idő? Igazából azt se tudom mit jelent a diagnózis. A térdkalácsommal lett valami, nem is bírom behajlitani a lábam. Járni is alig bírok. Lassan egy hete lesz de még javulást nem tapasztalok. Még mindig meg van duzzadva. Mire számíthatok A patellar fracture is a break in the patella, or kneecap, the small bone that sits at the front of your knee. Because the patella acts as a shield for your knee joint, it is vulnerable to fracture if you fall directly onto your knee or hit it against the dashboard in a vehicle collision The dislocated patella is reduced by placing pressure on the lateral aspect of the kneecap and pushing it inwards at the same time as straightening the knee. This should only be done by a qualified healthcare professional or there is a risk of further damage

Structure. The patella is a sesamoid bone roughly triangular in shape, with the apex of the patella facing downwards. The apex is the most inferior (lowest) part of the patella. It is pointed in shape, and gives attachment to the patellar ligament.. The front and back surfaces are joined by a thin margin and towards centre by a thicker margin. The tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle. The DonJoy Lateral J knee brace is one of our most popular patella stabilizing brace. The brace is equipped with a tubular, lateral J buttress that runs alongside the knee and provides support against lateral patellar subluxation, dislocations, or improper patellar tracking Medial patellar subluxation or dislocation is most common after lateral release, a surgical procedure on your knee used to realign your kneecap and prevent lateral patellar subluxation. During this surgery, surgeons must make sure your ligaments are released enough to fix lateral alignment issues A lateral release is a surgical procedure on the knee used to realign the kneecap (patella). The lateral release is performed as an arthroscopic knee surgery and can be performed as an outpatient. The usual reason to perform a lateral release is to correct a partially dislocated kneecap that is causing pain

Patellofemoral instability Radiology Reference Article

Egy patella lateralisatio műtétnél kb. mennyi a teljes gyógyulási idő? - Válaszok a kérdésre. Elfogadom. Weboldalunk cookie-kat használhat, hogy megjegyezze a belépési adatokat, egyedi beállításokat, továbbá statisztikai célokra és hogy a személyes érdeklődéshez igazítsa hirdetéseit Før patella er reponeret findes et låst knæ - knæet kan ikke strækkes og holdes i 20-30º fleksion. Patella kan palperes lateralt Når patella er reponeret findes ømhed medialt for patella, og der dannes som regel et hæmartron. Det er smertefuldt at flektere knæet

Kniescheibenfehlstellung (Lateralisation der Patella

  1. Your knee is the largest joint in your body. The kneecap, or patella, is the bone that covers your knee. It helps give the joint strength and structure, which allows your legs to bend and turn safely
  2. best to assess for lateral patellar tilt; lateral patellofemoral angle (normal is an angle that opens laterally) angle between line along subchondral bone of lateral trochlear facet + posterior femoral condyles; normal > 11° congruence angle (normal is -6 degrees) sulcus angle . evaluate for trochlear dysplasi
  3. e the anatomy of the knee joint - its articulating surfaces, ligaments and neurovascular supply
  4. Chondromalacia patella, also called chondromalacia of the patella, condition in which the cartilage on the undersurface of the kneecap (patella) becomes softened or damaged. Classically, the term refers to pathologic findings at the time of surgery. It is one of several conditions that may be referred to as runner's knee and is sometimes described as patellofemoral pain syndrome (pain around.
  5. Patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome (Hoffa fat pad impingement) is thought to be an overuse injury characterized by direct contact of the patellar tendon against the lateral femoral condyle, causing compression of the superolateral aspect of the infrapatellar fat pad. 1,2 The etiology of this syndrome is likely due to.

With persistent lateral patellar deviation, lateral structures (eg, distal fibers of the iliotibial band) contract, resulting in further lateral deviation and greater lateral subluxation. Lateral deviation of the patella also results in altered VMO length and/or tension, which may diminish the medially directed force generation of the VMO muscle Learning radiology of knee injury covering fractures of the tibia and patella - Lower limb X-rays - Knee fractures as seen on X-ray, Fractures of the tibial plateau. Patella fracture - X-ray appearances. Lipohaemarthrosis x-ray appearances. Knee joint effusion with haemarthrosis This article for Radiologic Technologists (X-Ray Techs) discusses radiographic positioning of the knee in lateral views. Knee Lateral. Purpose and Structures Shown To get a clear image of the patella in lateral profile. Structures seen are the distal end of the femur, patella, patellofemoral joint, proximal ends of the tibia and fibula, joint space between the tibia and femoral condyles, and.

Chondromalacia Patella Symptoms & Treatmen

Notes and Importance: The patella, the largest sesamoid bone in the body, is intercalcated within the deep surface of the tendon of origin of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Lateral Collateral Ligament. NAV Term: Lig.Collaterale Laterale. What is this? This ligament extends from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula (with a few fibers attaching to the lateral condyle of. Learn about lateral knee pain taping. Lateral knee pain can indicate a number of different root causes. These causes include Runner's Knee or ITBS (Iliotibial Band Syndrome), Lateral Meniscus Tear, Patellofemoral Instability (Lateral Patella Tracking), PFPS (Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome), or Arthritis Knee joint aspiration and injection are performed to aid in diagnosis and treatment of knee joint diseases. The knee joint is the most common and the easiest joint for the physician to aspirate Lateral release knee surgery is done to treat patella maltracking caused by tightness in the structures on the outer side of the kneecap. This tightness can pull the kneecap out of its normal resting place and cause it to sit at an angle, both of which can cause anterior knee pain and instability

Patellaluxation - Wissen für Mediziner - AmBos

Lateral patellar compression syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. It is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists and soccer players. The patella, also called kneecap, is a small flat triangular bone located at the front of the knee joint Knee Lateral Release Andrea M. Spiker Carl H. Wierks Andrew J. Cosgarea DEFINITION Patellofemoral pain is a common symptom in active adolescents and adults. The diagnosis of patellofemoral pain is nonspecific. It may be caused by trauma, instability, overuse, or anatomic abnormalities such as bipartite patella, maltracking, or malalignment. It may also be caused b While lateral release alone can typically solve patellar instability issues, if it becomes more unstable afterward, more surgery may be needed to improve stability. Prolonged or Chronic Knee Pain If there has been any joint surface cartilage injury or damage to either the knee cap or the femur from repeated partial dislocation, or complete. Learn the Lemaire lateral extra-articular tenodesis for anterolateral rotational knee instability surgical technique with step by step instructions on OrthOracle. Our e-learning platform contains high resolution images and a certified CME of the Lemaire lateral extra-articular tenodesis for anterolateral rotational knee instability surgical procedure patella pops out of this groove to either the inside (medial) or outside (lateral) a patellar luxation is diagnosed. This dislocation occurs when the knee is flexed and the groove in the thighbone isn't deep enough or the tendon doesn't properly hold the patella in place. Medial luxation of the kneecap is the mor

The best test to assess lateral patellar instability is the lateral patellar apprehension test. In this test, the knee is held over the side of the bed and the examiner gently pushes the patella laterally to see if the patient has a feeling that it is going to slip out Adjust rotation of body and leg until knee is in a true lateral position (femoral epicondyles directly superimposed and plane of patella perpendicular to plane of IR.) Flex knee only 5 or 10 degree. (Additional flexion may separate fracture fragments if present.) Align and center long axis of patella to CR and to centerline of table or IR.

The true incidence of knee dislocations is likely higher than reported because 50% of knee dislocations spontaneously reduce before patients present to the emergency department (Kennedy, 1963) Patellar dislocations Annual patellar dislocation rate is approximately 43/100,000 (Brown, 2006). The majority are lateral The lateral soft tissue complex is composed of the iliotibial band extension to the patella, the vastus lateralis tendon, the lateral PF ligament, lateral patellotibial ligament, and lateral. Lateral Ear Resection in Dogs. Legg-Perthes Disease in Dogs. Leptospirosis and Your Pet: A CDC Fact Sheet. Medial Luxating Patella in Dogs. Megaesophagus in Dogs. Meibomian Gland Tumors in Dogs. Patellar Luxation in Dogs Ranges in Severity Further Reading Publications Refereed papers. Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.; Di Dona F, Della Valle G, Balestriere C, Lamanga B, Meomaratino L, Napoleone G, Lamanga F, Fatone G (2016) Lateral patellar luxation in nine small breed dogs. Open Vet J 6 (3), 255-258 PubMed.; Kalff S, Butterworth S J, Miller A, Keeley B, Baines S, McKee W M (2014) Lateral patellar luxation: a. The lateral patellar ligament, along with its medial counterpart, is a part of the patellar ligament. These two ligaments are very soft and tender

Patella alta Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia

The DonJoy Lateral J Patella Knee Brace is equipped with a tubular, lateral J buttress that runs alongside the knee. This knee brace can be worn for day-to-day activities and while playing sports; both in and out of the water (OBQ12.229) A 43-year-old male suffers a knee injury and undergoes the operation seen in Figures A and B. At his one-year follow-up appointment, the patient notes pain in the peri-patellar region that is aggravated by palpation and kneeling Knee Arthroscopy/Lateral Release Rehabilitation Dr. Walter R. Lowe This rehabilitation protocol is designed for patients who have undergone knee arthroscopy or arthroscopic lateral release. The intensity allowed and the time frame required for the rehabilitation process is dependent upon th

In subluxation of the patellar, release of the lateral patellar retinaculum must be carried out to keep the patella in the central part of the patellar sulcus of the femoral component and then to have good patellar tracking. Otherwise, inadequate patellar tracking will remarkably reduce the longevity of the knee prosthesis Patellar fractures are known in common terms as simply, a broken knee. The patella is the bone that creates the knee cap bone, which shields the meeting point of the thigh bone and shin bone. There is a thin shield of cartilage beneath the patella (so it can be moved around) as the bone also connects the muscles and tissues of the upper and.

Lateral Knee Pain (Outside Of The Knee) - Symptoms

7 | Oxford Fixed Lateral Partial Knee Surgical Technique Figure 10 Positioning the Femoral Drill Guide: IM Option With the knee in about 45 degrees of flexion, make a hole in the intramedullary canal of the femur with the 4 mm drill followed by the 5 mm awl alignment options. Both options are covered in the (Figure 11) Anterior knee pain is a dull, aching pain that is most often felt: Behind the kneecap (patella) Below the kneecap; On the sides of the kneecap ; One common symptom is a grating or grinding feeling when the knee is flexed (when the ankle is brought closer to the back of the thigh) Breg Patella Stabilizing Brace With Lateral Buttress. Knee instability, pain and fatigue can greatly impact your quality of life and ability to get around or enjoy the active lifestyle you want. If you have a patellofemoral condition that causes any of these issues, a patella stabilizing brace with a lateral buttress can help

Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a broad term used to describe pain in the front of the knee and around the patella, or kneecap. It is sometimes called runner's knee or jumper's knee because it is common in people who participate in sports—particularly females and young adults—but patellofemoral pain syndrome can occur in nonathletes, as well To estimate the midterm outcome of primary total knee arthroplasty for severe valgus deformity using selective release of tight lateral structures and the least-constrained implant. We performed total knee arthroplasty on 65 consecutive type II knees with valgus deformity> 20°. Surgery was done via a medial parapatellar approach Superior Braces OA Unloader Knee Brace for Arthritis Pain, Osteoarthritis, Knee Joint Pain and Degeneration, Universal Size, Right Medial, Left Lateral, Gray & Black 3.3 out of 5 stars 69 $84.49 $ 84 . 49 ($84.49/Count

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of patellofemoral joint morphology and patellar alignment (lateral patellar tilt and sagittal patellar tilt) on the presence and stage of CP, and identify the differences between sexes. MRI of 243 patients [146 men (60.1%)] were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were grouped as normal group without chondromalacia, group with mild. Lateral buttress in post-op dressing to stabilize patella Ice and modalities to reduce pain and inflammation Use crutches for 5 to 7 days to reduce swelling. The patient may discontinue the crutches when they can walk without pain and without limping. Elevate the knee above the heart for the first 3 to 5 day Medial vs Lateral Approach for Total Knee Replacement on Valgus Knee: a Randomized Clinical Trial (ValgusKnee) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government

Lateral knee pain (outside) Lateral knee pain refers to the outside of the knee. It usually, but not always, develops gradually through overuse. The most common causes are: LCL sprain - injury to the lateral collateral ligament on the outside of the knee. Usually an acute knee sprain but may occur through gradually over time from overuse Lateral patellar laxity will also produce medial patellar subluxation or dislocation with the patella sliding to the medial side. This is a very abnormal instability that is usually due to prior lateral release but can occur naturally without any prior treatment Lateral Retinacular Release. What is the retinaculum? The patella (kneecap) is balanced in the front of the knee on the femur (thigh bone). In order to keep the patella centered in the middle of the knee, there are tissues on the inside and outside of the patella which are supposed to pull the patella equally each way Lateral release surgery is a surgical procedure used to help realign the kneecap. The most common reason for needing a lateral release is when your patella is out of place as a result of lateral patella tilt, lateral riding patella or a combination of both

The lateral patellar retinaculum is an extension of the vastus lateralis and attaches to the superolateral border of the patella and distally to the lateral condyle of the tibia. If the medial and lateral retinacula are intact following a patella fracture, the patient may retain the ability to actively extend the knee Figure 20. Lateral knee X-ray with horizontal beam & AP image of the left knee. The lateral image shows lipohemarthrosis and a lateral tibial plateau fracture. Note the abnormal tibiofemoral alignment (> 5 mm). Tibial Plateau Fracture. A tibial plateau fracture is a common knee fracture. Subtle fractures may be missed in a knee X-ray Like a lot of knee injuries, a meniscus tear can be painful and debilitating. Unfortunately, it's quite common. In fact, a meniscal tear is one of the most frequently occurring cartilage injuries. 202 CASE STUDY 10 SEVERE LATERAL PATELLAR SUBLUXATION Figure CS10.5 Definitive fixation after mild and controlled medialization of the tibial tuberosity (radiograph, lateral view) The position of the patella, the lateral displace-ment and the patellar glide are then controlled. The patella should remain in the trochlea, the dis We hope this picture Knee anatomy anterior view and lateral view in detail can help you study and research. for more anatomy content please follow us and visit our website: www.anatomynote.com. Anatomynote.com found Knee anatomy anterior view and lateral view in detail from plenty of anatomical pictures on the internet. We think this is the.

The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and provides increased mechanical advantage for knee extension. It is held in place by the medial and lateral retinaculae, and its posterior. When our hamstring fascia gets too restricted laterally (that biceps femoris fascia can often get stuck to the IT Band fascia), it can pull on the patella (kneecap), causing lateral knee pain. If you have lateral knee pain , my recommendation is to use this technique in conjunction with my calf release for knee pain Passive Patellar Tilt Test PROCEDURE • The patient lies supine with the knee extended and the quadriceps relaxed. The examiner stands at the end of the examining table and lifts the lateral edge of the patella away from the lateral femoral condyle

Patellar Apprehension Test Patella Dislocation - YouTub

In patients with advanced patellofemoral arthritis and no involvement of the medial and lateral compartment of the knee, the orthopedic surgeon may recommend a patellofemoral knee replacement, which is a type of partial knee replacement. In this procedure, arthritic surfaces on the femur and patella are removed and replaced with prosthetic. Transient lateral patellar dislocation. Although you may feel that being asked to make the specific diagnosis of lateral patellar dislocation from a single image is unrealistic, the coronal view in fact reveals a classic and highly characteristic appearance, allowing the diagnosis to be made with confidence In total knee surgery, the wide blade of the large retractor spans the prepared box and helps bring the tibia forward. The small retractor helps with retraction of the medial and lateral structures, where the wide, concave blade provides added exposure over standard bent Hohmann retractors. The serrated tip helps improve stability. Product No

Atlas of Knee MRI Anatomy 1, Patellar tendon. 2, Lateral Tibial plateau. 3, Medial Tibial plateau. 4, Greater saphenous vein. 5, Sartorius muscle and tendon. 6, Medial head gastrocnemius muscle. 7, Plantar and lateral head gastrocnemius muscle. MRI of the knee: T2-weighted FATSAT, Axial view. Image 18 The Runners Knee Diagnostic Checklist. How to tell the difference between the two most common kinds of runner's knee. Paul Ingraham, updated Jan 5, 2019 Runner's knee refers to one of two common1 repetitive strain injuries of the knee, either iliotibial band syndrome or patellofemoral syndrome.Both usually affect runners, triathletes, hikers and serious walkers

Purpose Lateral progression of arthritis following medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), although infrequent, is still the most common reason for revision surgery to lateral patellar translation (which is the most common direction of displacement), especially beyond 20° of knee flexion. People who have a shallow trochlea are more susceptible to patellar instability. Proper stabilization of the patella is also affected by the soft tissue structures (ligaments and muscles) surrounding the knee. The media The lateral retinaculum is a ligament that helps hold your patella, or kneecap, in place. When the knee moves slightly out of place or becomes tilted in the joint, it can cause tension and pain in the lateral retinaculum. Stretching this ligament keeps the patella in place and the ligament healthy With the patient's knee fully extended lateral pressure is applied to the patella whilst simultaneously slowly flexing the knee joint. The presence of active resistance from the patient is suggestive of previous patellar instability and dislocation (as the patient is apprehensive about it recurring)

Tears to the lateral collateral ligament most often occur from a direct blow to the inside of the knee. This can stretch the ligaments on the outside of the near too far and may cause them to tear. This type of injury occurs in sports. Lateral collateral ligament tears do not heal as well as medial collateral ligament tears do. Severe tears may require surgery 2. Identify the midportion of the patella by palpation. 3. Have the patient relax the quadriceps, and sublux the patella laterally. Palpate the posterior edge of the lateral margin. Mark the midportion. 4. Prep and drape in standard sterile fashion. 5. Anesthetize the skin. 6. Advance a 1½ 25 G needle under the patella from a lateral.

Sizes: xs, s, m, l, xl, xxl The ultra low-profile Universal Hinged Lateral Stabilizer was designed with flexibility and comfort in mind. Its unique reversiblesupport system allows for use on either the left or right leg, while providing comfortable patella stabilization and control knee joint lateral view. this is a x-ray image of the knee showing the knee from lateral view showing : 1. shaft of femur 2. base of patella 3. patella 4. apex of patella 5. patellar surface 6. lateral epicondyle 7. intercondylar fossa 8. femoro-tibial joint 9. groove for popliteus 10. l

Patellofemoral Joint - Physiopedi

Frontal and lateral radiographs of the patella demonstrate a transverse fracture through the midpole of the patella with displacement of the superior pole (red arrow) by the quadriceps tendon and displacement of the inferior pole (red arrow) by the patellar tendon (black arrows). The result is marked distraction of the fragments (yellow line) Two RCTs (no new additional studies in this update) with 57 participants met the inclusion criteria. These studies demonstrated high risk of performance and detection bias, and the risk of selection, attrition, and reporting bias was unclear.. The first study included 40 participants with lateral elbow tendinitis and compared (1) deep transverse friction massage combined with therapeutic. An improved design of a dependable patella support, Lateral J knee brace. Contains the same lateral J tubular rubberized buttress but now offers aluminum hinges for enhanced stability and allows patients to return to function with more confidence and more comfort. For patients with lateral patellofemoral knee pain related to the following Arthroscopic technique for lateral release is the most widely used procedure for the correction of recurrent dislocations of the patella. In the relevant literature, several complications of lateral release are described, but the spontaneous patellar tendon rupture has never been suggested as a possible complication of this surgical procedure. Patellar tendon rupture is a rather infrequent and. Patellar tendon lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome is one of several entities that result in anterior knee pain and in which abnormalities of the patellar fat pads are found on MR imaging. Though the entities are related based on location of disease, their imaging appearances are varied and distinctive, allowing the astute interpreter of.

Patellar malalignment treatment in total knee arthroplast

Lateral retinaculum—ligaments on the outer part of the patella help stabilize the kneecap from shifting in an inward or medial direction. Occasionally the retinaculum may become tight and cause our patella to either tilt or sublux in an outward, or lateral, direction LATERAL J PATELLA KNEE BRACE WITH Supportive Hinge....lightly used twice...used over stretch pants to try it out. DONJOY® LATERAL J The tubular Lateral J buttress is ideal for supporting lateral patellar subluxation, dislocations or lateral patellofemoral malalignment The lateral collateral ligament is found deep to the lateral patellar retinaculum, and superficial to the tendon of popliteus muscle, which separates the ligament from the lateral meniscus. Medial (tibial) collateral ligament. The medial( (tibial) collateral ligament is the strong, flat ligament of the medial aspect of the knee joint

Detection of lateral displacement was the sole purpose of earlier studies until Laurin et al. introduced the concept of patellar tilt as a form of malalignment. This tilt could be observed even with the patella completely reduced in the femoral groove, and was therefore independent of the mediolateral position of the patella INTRODUCTION. The posterior and lateral anatomy of the knee joint presents a challenge to even the most experienced knee surgeon. Knowledge of the bony topography will result in a greater number of anatomic ligament reconstructions ().A lack of familiarity leads to hesitancy when performing approaches in these areas of the knee There is currently no consensus regarding the optimal surgical treatment method for patients with recurrent patella instability. Our goal was to evaluate the long-term results of combined arthroscopic medial reefing and lateral release, to identify possible risk factors for recurrent dislocations and residual complaints after surgical treatment and to assess functional outcome knee-cap (patella) dislocation Dislocation of the kneecap (patellofemoral joint) is a relatively common injury that may be either due to an acute traumatic event (most commonly a sporting injury), due to a long-standing abnormality of the kneecap joint (trochlear dysplasia) or possibly due to hyperlaxicity of soft tissues Structure. The patella is a sesamoid bone roughly triangular in shape, with the apex of the patella facing downwards. The apex is the most inferior (lowest) part of the patella. It is pointed in shape, and gives attachment to the patellar ligament.. The front and back surfaces are joined by a thin margin and towards centre by a thicker margin. The tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle.

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